A Theory of Stress and Accent

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Preview this item Preview this item. Next, we turn to the categories left-oriented and right-oriented , which differ from left-edge and right-edge in the following way.

From tone to accent

Inclusion of these syllables occurs in several types of cases. First, the class of right-oriented languages includes cases in which non-peripherality is in play, as in classical Latin:. A typical case is a language that has bounded weight-sensitive stress, as described above, but where in the case of H LL ] stress is assigned to the antepenultimate syllable. Thirdly, it may happen that stress may occur on all three peripheral syllables dependent on weight factors.

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Fourthly, we have also included languages where the location of stress can be ultimate, penultimate or antepenultimate not because intrinsic weight is relevant, but simply because stress is lexically marked within a peripheral or near-peripheral right-edge domain:. The rationale behind including this type in the bounded weight-sensitive systems is that lexical marking of syllables functions much like intrinsic weight.

A Theory of Stress and Accent

A lexically marked syllable will attract the stress within a domain, just as a heavy syllable does. We therefore refer to lexical marking as diacritic weight see Chapter This category, also represented on Map 15A , has an unbounded stress window comprising the whole word with the possible exclusion of a peripheral syllable.

These systems are especially interesting because the location of stress is not restricted to syllables that are near the edge of the word. The reason why unbounded systems are represented together with weight-sensitive bounded cases is that, in StressTyp, all unbounded systems are weight-sensitive. In Chapter 14 we discussed the possibility of treating systems that we classified as weight-insensitive bounded systems, as unbounded in certain cases, notably if such systems lack any sign of rhythm. However, we have not done this in StressTyp. Hence, in StressTyp all unbounded systems are weight-sensitive.

It turns out that the location of stress in unbounded systems follows exactly the same principles that determine stress location in bounded, weight-sensitive systems.


Again there are four types, as shown in 9 compare 3. The only difference is that the domain can now contain more than two heavy syllables since its size is not limited to the size of two syllables :.

Stress the rightmost heavy syllable in the word, and if there are no heavy syllables, stress the first syllable. Dongolese Nubian , Huasteco , Meadow Mari. Aguacatec , Golin , Hill Mari. Khalkha , Murik. Here are some examples from Dongolese Nubian :.

English Pronunciation - Rhythm Intonation Stress - Improve English Accent

On the map, all four types are collapsed into one category of unbounded systems. The combined category type 6 contains languages in which the stress rule switches from bounded to unbounded or vice versa in predictable circumstances - for instance, when the bounded domain contains only light syllables, or in the assignment of secondary stress. The relevance of this category to the theory is high, but the discussion is too elaborate to present here.

In the cases discussed so far, syllable weight is determined by the intrinsic properties of syllables. Consider the stress system of Russian. Have one to sell?


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Sell yours here. See all 1 image s. Currently unavailable. We don't know when or if this item will be back in stock. Book Description Publication Date: January 1, The architecture of the human language faculty has been one of the main foci of the linguistic research of the last half century.