Army Ops manual Alien Operations

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ICE Officer s will be responsible for the custody of any alien national passengers. Deportation tears families and communities apart, disrupting the international right to family unity. Until now, the role of deportation flights in contributing to human rights abuses has been mostly ignored. In recent years, allegations of egregious physical abuse on ICE Air flights have surfaced in several cases. The most notorious of these involved a failed flight to Somalia, in which 92 deportees were reportedly subjected to horrific conditions when the flight was waylaid in Dakar, Senegal, where it remained on the tarmac, with its deportee passengers bound and shackled, for almost 23 hours.

Numerous passengers provided sworn testimony describing physical beatings, the use of straitjackets, verbal abuse and threats, and the denial of access to restrooms, which forced passengers to soil themselves in their seats. ICE has denied the use of tasers on this flight; while the Office of the Inspector General is said to have opened an investigation, we filed a FOIA request for its findings and were told that no record exists of any investigation. While these accounts are shocking, they are relatively few and far between when one considers the volume of daily deportation flights. However, given the lack of effective oversight of ICE Air, it is likely that many other abuses may go unreported.

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In fact, the only reason the egregious abuses on the December flight to Somalia came to light is because that flight was returned to the United States. Among the former deportees we interviewed, accounts of more routine ill-treatment were common, including the use of racist epithets and insults, and rough physical treatment upon boarding. Attorneys representing immigrants have long complained that some of their clients are deported prior to the conclusion of their legal proceedings, rendering moot other rights protections under law.

Some such cases have come to light previously, under rare circumstances where lawyers learned of deportations as they were happening and brought them to the attention of judges who then sought to pull passengers from planes or even reverse flights in midair. The ICE Air database reveals, for the first time, of how widespread these due process violations may be. These violations are occurring despite the fact that ICE itself tracks information about the status of legal proceedings, and thus should be entirely preventable. Examining these codes permits us to see how many passengers were put on removal flights while they may still have had appeals pending, and how many were removed without access to the courts at all.

Additionally, for an ever-expanding category of migrants, US laws also allow deportation without access to the courts. In asylum cases, an immigration judge may be involved but even then federal review is essentially precluded.

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In most cases, a person subject to expedited removal is detained, has no right to counsel, often has no time to communicate with her family members or to seek legal counsel and has no right to appeal. A person deported without documents attesting to their identity runs the risk of becoming stateless, may face arrest or discrimination in the receiving country, and typically lacks the ability to access services or employment.

As human rights advocates have made clear, the flawed process of adjudicating asylum claims in this country already denies protection to many migrants for whom return to their country of origin may be life-threatening. However, the ICE Air dataset makes clear the extent to which people are deported to countries experiencing levels of violence and abuse that raise grave concerns.

For example, the dataset reflects growing numbers of removals to Somalia, a nation in which large swaths of territory remain under the control of the terrorist group Al-Shabaab. Of course, many other deportees are also returned to countries where their lives are in danger, often due to circumstances that fit awkwardly, if at all, into contemporary Department of Justice guidelines for the granting of asylum.

We are unaware of any efforts to date to hold anyone accountable for abuses by ICE Air or its contractors.

In fact, it is not clear ICE is aware of abuses, as it lacks serious reporting mechanisms that would alert the agency to their occurrence. It is unclear whether deportees aboard flights are even able to file one of these complaints. These performance metrics are almost entirely focused on efficiency and aircraft safety.

The federal government has failed to hold ICE accountable for known rights violations in many areas, and its Air Operations are no exception. But in part, it also responds to significant gaps in aviation law, which has arisen primarily in response to the needs generated by commercial flights. FAA regulations are largely focused on aircraft safety and do not include any provisions directly related to the treatment of air passengers, except during emergency procedures. There are cases where recent laws have been written to counter abuses, including violence, on planes.

We are unaware of any case where this has occurred. While international human rights law has limited enforcement in the United States, some US statutes have been specifically written to protect against violations by US government or its agents. Lastly, inasmuch as the flights touch down in specific geographic localities with varying commitments to human rights, there is the potential that state and local governments could exercise some measure of oversight in relation to the use of the airports they control.

At the local level, most airports are owned and run by municipal authorities, in coordination with the FAA.


Although the airports themselves typically do not have contracts with ICE for deportation flights, they provide the infrastructure through which private fixed base operators FBOs housed at the airport contract with ICE subcontractors to carry out, and profit from, deportation flights. Most local airports have received FAA funds through the Airport Improvement Program AIP , and in doing so have acquired a series of obligations, or assurances, to the federal government; these are sometimes cited by local officials as an excuse for inaction.

Regardless of whether municipal airports have the authority to reject deportation flights, they clearly have responsibilities to oversee the health, safety, and public welfare implications of all businesses operating at their airport—including the FBOs. Local governments have the authority and obligation to ensure that FBOs are complying with these contractual obligations.

While ICE explained its switch from government planes to charter aircraft in terms of economic efficiency, the privatization of ICE Air is also clearly a reflection of political expediency: only a network built on the regular daily departures of privately-hired s and MDs can generate the numbers necessary to appease anti-immigrant sentiment and the profit required to placate campaign donors, yet conceal—at least in part—the ugly realities inherent to the project of mass deportation.

Despite the difficulty in obtaining information about them, all along these flights have been hidden in plain sight.

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In recent years, legal and political mobilization have led to some local governments delimiting the extent to which they share information with immigration authorities or carry out civil immigration enforcement with local resources; no such barriers have been erected, yet, around the infrastructure for air transportation, but the time has come for this work to be done. Even for such cases, however, ICE Air runs removal missions that transfer Mexicans apprehended elsewhere to US border cities from which they are bussed across the border. Maria Cantwell and Rep.

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Pramila Jayapal when this request was initially ignored by ICE. International airports not depicted account for a relatively small proportion of total passengers.

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CBP should be contacted for those statistics. Opposing Force takes place several hours after the initial resonance cascade. Adrian Shephard is knocked unconscious when his Osprey transport is shot down by Xen forces and wakes up several hours later in the Black Mesa Infirmary. Shephard regains consciousness just in time to witness the HECU begin to pull out all of its troops. However, he is prevented from leaving when the mysterious G-Man seals him in the facility.

Shephard is forced to continue deeper into Black Mesa, where he encounters and takes charge of the remnants of HECU who have also been left behind during the evacuation. Shephard and his men find themselves combating not only the aliens from Xen but also the newly arrived "Race X" aliens and a group of government Black Ops assassins who have recently been dispatched to the facility, who appear to have orders to eliminate any remaining HECU Marines as well as to destroy Black Mesa with a nuclear device. Furthermore, in both games, the troops are deployed in Osprey aircraft, which at the time of the game's production, had not yet gone beyond Engineering and Manufacturing Development EMD and low-rate production with the United States Marine Corps.

These actual Murphy's laws are included in the Opposing Force instruction manual, written as a soldier's handbook. They are prominently seen in the next chapter, Captive Freight , where they are swarming the Freight Yard , have trapped Rosenberg and many other scientists in containers, and fatally wounded Harold.


In the next chapters, Power Struggle and A Leap of Faith , set in and under the Section A Prototype Labs , they do everything they can to stop Barney, Rosenberg, Simmons, and Walter from escaping the facility by teleportation, but they ultimately fail. A dying security guard warns the players that they are everywhere. They eventually get to the Library, which they have to clean up from the soldiers so that they can bring a security guard to Dr. There many are offloaded by an Osprey and attack Gina and Colette while they attempt to enter the clearance codes given by the security guard picked up in the Level 3 Dormitories.

They are seen again in the next chapter, Crossfire , in the sewers under the Gamma Labs , where they guard the Displacement Beacon Focus Emitter. They are finally seen in the bonus chapter, Xen Attacks , in the underground parking lot located under the Ordinance Storage Facility where R and X must retrieve the Xen crystal samples. The Hazardous Environment Combat Unit troops, while utilizing a variety of equipment and firearms, are all equipped similarly.

The HECU use a wide variety of weapons, for various purposes.

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Most of these weapons are based on real-life weapons. Some of the following weapons cannot be used by the player. The technology used by the HECU is mostly based on conventional and unconventional military practices such as vehicle support, artillery support, fortification and traps. The HECU use several techniques and tactics over the course of Half-Life , ranging from setting traps and the use of turrets to use of heavy vehicles and air strikes. The standard infantry tactics include using numbers to pin down the player and then advancing, occasionally tossing grenades to either kill the player or force him to come out of hiding.

They also use heavily fortified mounted turrets on several occasions.