The Molecular Biology of Adenoviruses 3: 30 Years of Adenovirus Research 1953–1983

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Maurice Green (virologist) - Wikipedia

Educational material should disclose the specific LCMV risk in this population of pet rodents and potential outcomes in humans, including birth defects and fetal deaths. If sale of rodents is allowed to continue, populations at high risk i. Preventing LCMV infection in new supplies of rodents : efforts are under way to ensure that animal facilities and equipment in retail outlets are disinfected, that new supplies of rodents come from sources free from LCMV, and that cross-contamination between new supplies of rodents and potentially infected animals will not occur.

Surfaces, cages, and any reusable equipment that has been in contact with affected animals, their waste, or bedding material should be cleaned and disinfected by using a household disinfectant according to the manufacturer's instructions. Persons who are pregnant or have compromised immune systems should not engage in cleaning and disinfection related to these affected animals or other rodents. CDC and other partners will work with breeders and retailers in the pet industry to implement quality-assurance programs to minimize the risk for LCMV infection in rodents that are sold to the public.

Previously purchased pet rodents : testing of individual pet rodents in households is not a recommended strategy to minimize risk for LCMV infection; the probability of any one rodent in the United States being infected is low. The greatest infection risk for a pet owner is likely to occur soon after purchase of a pet rodent. Thus, most exposures likely already have occurred for existing owners and substantial added risk is unlikely to result from continued ownership of the rodent. However, women who are or who plan to become pregnant and persons who are immunocompromised should avoid contact with all rodents.

Adenovirus life cycle

To prevent any possible infection of other rodents in stores, owners should not return pet rodents from MidSouth Distributors to pet stores. For legal, ethical, and wildlife conservation considerations, owners should not release pet rodents into the wild.

Materials And Methods

Persons who no longer wish to keep their pet rodent should consult a veterinarian. CDC continues to work with state public health officials and retailers in the pet industry to educate the public regarding safe handling of pet rodents and has prepared educational material for reducing the risk for LCMV infection from pet rodents. Rodents and other pets from any pet store pose some risk for transmitting certain infectious diseases and should be handled appropriately.

The following precautions can be taken to reduce the risk for acquiring LCMV infection during pregnancy: avoid contact with wild rodents. Pregnant women who reside in a household with a wild rodent infestation should have the infestation addressed promptly by a professional pest control company or another member of the household.

Pregnant women should ask another family member or friend to clean the cage and care for the pet or arrange for temporary adoption of the pet by a responsible person. Pregnant women should avoid prolonged stays in any room where a rodent resides. Persons with impaired immune-system function should avoid contact with all rodents.

The Molecular Biology of Adenoviruses 3

Serologic testing on rodents can be inaccurate and misleading. All pet animals should be assumed capable of transmitting certain infectious diseases.

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Similarly, testing persons with previous history of LCMV-compatible illness generally is not useful. Persons with active disease suggestive of LCMV should seek medical care and report any exposures to wild or pet rodents. A physician should determine whether testing for LCMV is indicated. Physicians should work closely with their respective state health departments to discuss forwarding of samples to state laboratories or CDC for testing The major problem is the assumption that personal protective measures will protect owners of LCMV-infected pets from infection.

There can be disastrous consequences of infection of the fetus of an exposed woman, and potentially of all immunosuppressed persons, so that definitive protection against infection is mandated. Although the incidence of central nervous system disease after LCMV infection of the average person is unknown, the disease is not trivial when it occurs, and an antibody prevalence of approximately 5 percent in the general population suggests there are quite a number of infections.

The recommendations listed certainly would reduce the risk of infection if one were working with infected animals, but would not be considered at all adequate for laboratory or animal care of known infected animals. In particular, the recommendation to "Closely supervise young children when cleaning cages or handling rodents" is ridiculous.

The LCMV-infected rodent should not be sold to pet stores or passed along to consumers. LCMV is a chronic, vertically transmitted infection of house mice Mus musculus , and no other host supports it as a chronic infection. In commercial breeding colonies, horizontal infection with chronic virus excretion among hamsters can be sustained, but this form of infection is not known among wild rodents.

Guinea pigs suffer fatal infection, but the outcome of LCMV infection in gerbils and other potential pet rodents is not well-documented. Thus, the key element for keeping mouse and hamster colonies free of LCMV is to establish known "clean" colonies and exclude contact with wild Mus , so that the colonies cannot be infected in this way. Because of the difficulty of definitively excluding wild Mus , periodic testing of colonies should be carried out to assure virus is not introduced.

This is the norm for breeders of mice and hamsters for scientific use, but there are no statutory requirements for pet animals. It is important to recognize that the goal of maintaining LCMV-free mouse and hamster colonies is readily achievable and has been accomplished by the scientific suppliers. One also has to appreciate the biology of LCMV; it is uniquely linked to wild house mice, the control point.

The potential for aerosol transmission is high and thus measures to reduce human contact with fomites cannot by themselves provide safety. Contrast this with the relation between Toxoplasma gondii and domestic cats. It is virtually impossible to rid felines of this highly infectious human pathogen, and the strategy for protection of humans and the highly sensitive fetus does involve the kind of protective measures suggested.

We strongly urge the adoption of measures to assure that breeding centers for pet animals be properly tested for LCMV infection, that animals sent from infected colonies be traced and destroyed, and that we be able to assure a source of pet rodents safe from infection with virus. The tragedy of fetal infection with LCMV and the morbidity from this virus can be reduced to virtually zero. Callitrichid marmosets and tamarins hepatitis occurred in zoos in the US in the s and early s and was associated mostly with the feeding of newborn mice as a dietary supplement.

In these cases, newborn mice were not obtained from sources known to be properly controlled against LCMV infection. Wild mice were also implicated in some of the documented cases ref. Infection beyond the major colonies would be horizontal and thus not be a problem with mice. It could be more of a problem with hamsters, but would be more likely to lead to overt disease ref1 , ref2 , ref3. The colonies could be monitored easily. Studies during outbreaks in the past show that infection can occur when infected animals are kept in homes even without direct contact, and laboratory workers have been infected presumably by aerosols after only a single entrance into a laboratory ref1 , ref2 , ref3.

The bottom line is that there appears to be a lack of political will to take the necessary steps. Telling people who likely will never see the recommendations to "be careful" and not mentioning that close supervision of young children when cleaning cages or handling rodents is essentially irrelevant or that it would be better to have strict surveillance of the hamster or any pet , rather than the child, seems irresponsible. The best solution is to legislate requirements for pet shops and other sources of rodents or to eliminate these sources of disease altogether and suggest acquiring a real pet or go to a baseball game.

Half a century of experience with LCMV plus the repeated experiences with nfectious agents found among prairie dogs tularemia, monkeypox, plague, hantaviruses should have changed the landscape in all this but obviously has not. No spread to other lab or hospital staff was seen ref in a tube containing concentrated Sabia virus broke in a centrifuge at the Yale Arbovirus Research Unit. The centrifuge did not have screw-top caps on the buckets, so the contents of the tube were sprayed around the interior of the machine.

The researcher cleaned it up as best he could, but became infected. While in the incubation period of the disease, before feeling very ill but probably already infectious, he attended a conference in the USA attended by a large number of people. Not one of them became infected, and neither did any of the staff who attended him at the hospital during his illness.

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He made a full recovery ref. Transmission : the reservoir is unknown but assumed to be a rodent.

Community Outbreak of Adenovirus, Taiwan, 2011

Tacaribe virus : isolated from bats in Trinidad, it is immunologically related to the Junin and Machupo viruses. Viral person-to-person transmission of ANDV Sout lineage was described for the first time during an HPS outbreak due to ANDV Sout lineage in southwest Argentina in , in which 16 persons were involved ref1 , ref2 , ref3 , but in general, clusters of HPS cases are mainly attributed to a common source of rodent exposure.

This mechanism of interhuman virus spread, which makes ANDV unique among the hantaviruses, is not the only exclusive feature of this virus. ANDV was the only American hantavirus isolated from human serum ref. Clinicians at referral centers were concerned because some of the primary care providers from whom they received referrals displayed a less than thorough degree of awareness that mortality due to HCPS is nearly always due to cardiac insufficiency. In contrast to mechanical ventilation, which is available at any referral center, ECMO offers the distinct advantage of supporting patients whose cardiac function is markedly impaired by disease, as is almost universal in patients with severe "HPS".

The intensive care unit physicians hoped that the adoption of the nomenclature "hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome" would improve the understanding among referring physicians of the importance of providing cardiac support for patients with HCPS. This hope may be justified, as referring physicians appear to be more aware of the cardiac manifestations of HCPS in the wake of the use of the term by referral center providers. In the case of Andes virus infection, renal insufficiency and muscle inflammation are observed more frequently than is the case with Sin Nombre virus infection in North America. Epidemiology : Asia Transmission : reservoir : Apodemus agrarius. Severity of the illness varies, mild or subclinical infections common.

More severe cases are characterized by a febrile stage lasting days with abrupt onset of fever , headache , photophobia , blurred vision, prostration, nausea and vomiting , facial flushing extending to neck and shoulders, conjunctival petechiae, periorbital edema, acute pharyngitis , axillary petechiae, lumbar back pain and CVA tenderness lasting days.